5.16 Grade Progression of Children and Youth in Care (CYIC)
Although some CYIC are not in an age-appropriate grade they are progressing in their learning and move up to the next grade level the following September. Grade progression is an indicator of learning and educational progress.
Between 2000 and 2017, a greater proportion of Indigenous CYIC transitioned to a higher grade than non-Indigenous CYIC every year.
Since 2000, CYIC increasingly progressed to a higher grade (83% in 2000 compared to just over 90% in 2017). This performance is due to the consistent improvement in grade progression across Indigenous/non-Indigenous CYIC and across all age groups.
5.21 Age-Appropriate Grade of CYIC
MCFD and the Ministry of Education work together towards keeping CYIC in school and their learning progress at school. That CYIC are learning and progressing in school is an important outcome for the present and future well-being of CYIC. But it is also symptomatic of other aspects of the well-being and is a useful indicator to the ministry in its planning and service provision for each CYIC.
The 5.8 percentage point increase since September 2012 is a significant improvement. This improvement applies to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC. In fact, the trend has been upward since 2000 and has strengthened slightly since 2010.
Typically children are much more likely to repeat a grade from grade 9 onwards so those aged 14 to 17 are far less likely to be in age-appropriate grade. Since 2000, this performance indicator has improved across all age groups and for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC. Especially positive is that the greatest improvement is in the most challenging 14 to 17 age groups for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC.
CYIC aged 14 to 17 years old improved the most from 57% in 2000 compared to 86% in 2017. All other age groups were in their age-appropriate grade 90 to 97% of the time, between 2000 and 2017.
Since 2000, Indigenous CYIC has a higher proportion of students at the age-appropriate grade; 90% in the 2017 school year vs. 87% for their non-Indigenous counterpart. This 3 percentage point performance gap is the average gap since 2000.
Overall, female CYIC students are slightly more likely to be attending school in their age-appropriate grade than male CYIC students (under 2 percentage point difference).
5.26 CYIC Who Finish School with a High School Credential
There is strong evidence that completing high school is conducive to general well-being throughout life. Furthermore, it is a good barometer of current general well-being for that particular cohort. MCFD works to maximize the educational attainment of CYIC.
BC offers several options for students to show that they completed their K to 12 education. This performance measure combines two certificates (Certificate of Graduation – Dogwood Diploma and Adult Graduation Diploma Program) and one alternative credential (School Completion certificate).
For 2016/2017, 27% of CYIC turned 19 with a Dogwood Diploma, 17.8% with a Completion Certificate, and 10.3% with an Adult Graduation Diploma .
Over the past 14 years between fiscal year 2000/01 and 2016/17 steadily more CYIC and children on a Continuing Custody Order (CCO) turned 19 with a high school credential. In 2000/2001 28% of CYIC turned 19 with a high school credential whereas the proportion in 2016/2017 was 55.1%.
This trend in indicator is largely due to the introduction of the Completion Certificate. The Ministry of Education introduced Completion Certificates for students who successfully completed their education goals outlined in their Individualized Education Plan. The first CYIC turned 19 with a completion certificate in 2005/2006 (2.1%). In 2015/2016, 99 (16.3%) CYIC turned 19 with a Completion Certificate.
The proportion of CYIC turning 19 with a Dogwood Diploma increased from 22% in 2000/2001 to 27% in 2016/2017. Female CYIC turn 19 with a Dogwood Diploma at higher proportions than male CYIC regardless of Indigenous identity. All groupings of male/female and Indigenous/non-Indigenous CYIC turned 19 with a Dogwood Diploma at a higher proportion in 2016/2017 than 2000/2001. The proportion of male Indigenous CYIC showed the largest increase since 2000/2001 (11% to 22%).
5.31 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) for Reading, Writing and Numeracy, Grade 4 and Grade 7
Gauging the learning of CYIC provides MCFD with insight into their educational progress as well as some of their broader needs. FSA scores (even as early as Grade 4) have a high predictive power of high school completion. This is the proportion of CYIC from September to February of their grade 4 year and their grade 7 year who meet or exceed expectations for reading, writing and numeracy.
The following set of six tables presents the count and percentage of CYIC meeting or exceeding expectations in the areas of reading, writing, and numeracy in grades 4 and 7. The results below include CYIC in either grade that did not write the FSA. In 2016/17 40.5% of Grade 4 CYIC and 42.8% of Grade 7 CYIC did not write the FSA. CYIC with an identified education special need did not write the Grade 4 FSA 56.3% of the time, 57.6% for Grade 7 CYIC with an educational special need.
Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC meet or exceed expectations in Grade 4 Reading FSA at similar proportions. Both Indigenous and non-Indigenous female CYIC meet or exceed expectations in Grade 4 Writing at higher proportions than male CYIC every year MCFD has FSA results (2007/08 to 2016/17). In 2016/17, female CYIC met or exceeded expectations in Writing 12 percentage points higher than male CYIC (42% to 30%). In general, female CYIC meet expectations at higher proportions than male CYIC on all FSA tests. The exception is grade 4 Numeracy where male CYIC outperformed female CYIC. Non-Indigenous male CYIC improved from the lowest scores in 2014/2015 to the highest scores in 2016/2017 compared to non-Indigenous female CYIC went from highest scores to lowest scores over the same time period.
Both Indigenous and non-Indigenous female CYIC meet or exceed expectations in Grade 7 Writing at higher proportions than male CYIC for every year that MCFD has FSA results (2007/08 to 2016/17). In 2016/17, the proportion of female CYIC that met or exceeded expectations in Writing was approximately 17 percentage points higher than male CYIC, 38% (non-Indigenous female) and 44% (Indigenous female) compared to 38% (non-Indigenous male) and 21% (Indigenous male). All groups of Indigenous/non-Indigenous and male/female CYIC meet or exceed expectations at similar levels and trends over the Other Grade 7 FSA Tests (Numeracy and Reading).
5.41 Age-Appropriate Grade for Youth on Youth Agreements (YAGs)
Not only is education a determinant of healthy child development, long-term well-being and social inclusion, it is also a good barometer of a youth’s current well-being. Youth may repeat a grade or perhaps had delayed starting school for many reasons. However, YAGs are more likely to fall behind in school because of their experiences both before and after they left their parental home. Combined with grade progression and high school completion this indicator provides insight into the educational progression of YAGs.
YAGs aged 17 years old in 2005 were in their age-appropriate grade 34% compared to 73% in 2017. YAGs aged 16 years old in 2005 were in their age-appropriate grade 44% compared to 88% in 2017
YAGs are in their age-appropriate grade if they are, at most, 5 years older than their grade (16 years old in grade 11 and 17 years old in grade 12). This measure includes YAGs aged 18 years old as of September 30, 2014. These 18 year old YAGs make up 50% of the “Students on September 30, 2017 on a Youth Agreement” who are in school but cannot be in their age-appropriate grade due to their age.
5.46 Grade Progression of Youth Under a Youth Agreement
Although some youth are not in an age-appropriate grade they are progressing in their learning and move up to the next grade level the following September. Grade progression is an indicator of learning and educational progress.
All groupings of male/female and Indigenous/non-Indigenous YAGs have very similar trends and levels of grade progression between 2006 and 2017. In 2017, the YAGs progression rate improved back to its 2014 high. female Indigenous YAGs returned to their high progression level of 65% and male Indigenous YAGs repeated their 63% progression from 2016 in 2017. Male non-Indigenous YAGs dropped down to the lowest progression in 2017 at 34% from 51% in 2016.
YAGs aged 17 years old showed grade progression of 71% in 2017, an improvement from 48% in 2006, but a decline from 81% in 2014.
5.51 Youth on a Youth Agreement Who Finish School with a High School Credential
There is strong evidence that completing high school is conducive to general well-being throughout life. Furthermore, it is a good barometer of current general well-being for that particular cohort. MCFD works to maximize the educational attainment of youth on YA.
Provincially, nearly 60% of youth on a Youth Agreement that turned 19 also had a BC high school credential.
During 2016/2017, 60% of non-Indigenous female and male youth under a Youth Agreement (YAGs) turned 19 with a credential, higher than every other group of YAGs who turned 19 with a credential (40% for Indigenous male YAGs, 52% for Indigenous female YAGs).