5.16 Grade Progression of Children and Youth in Care (CYIC)
Although some CYIC are not in an age-appropriate grade they are progressing in their learning and move up to the next grade level the following September. Grade progression is an indicator of learning and educational progress.
Between 2000/01 and 2021/22, a greater proportion of Indigenous CYIC transitioned to a higher grade than non-Indigenous CYIC every year.
Since 2000/01, CYIC increasingly progressed to a higher grade (83% in 2000/01 compared to just over 93% in 2021/22). This performance is due to the consistent improvement in grade progression across Indigenous/non-Indigenous CYIC and across all age groups.
5.21 Age-Appropriate Grade of CYIC
MCFD and the Ministry of Education work together towards keeping CYIC in school and their learning progress at school. That CYIC are learning and progressing in school is an important outcome for the present and future well-being of CYIC. But it is also symptomatic of other aspects of the well-being and is a useful indicator to the ministry in its planning and service provision for each CYIC.
The 7.7 percentage point increase since September 2012 is a significant improvement. This improvement applies to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC and the trend has been upward since 2000/01.
Historically, children were more likely to repeat a grade from grade 9 onwards so those aged 14 to 17 were less likely to be in age-appropriate grade. Since 2000/01, this performance indicator has improved across all age groups and for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC. Especially positive is that the greatest improvement is in the most challenging 14 to 17 age groups for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC.
CYIC aged 14 to 17 years old improved the most from 57% in 2000/01 compared to 90% in 2021/22. All other age groups were in their age-appropriate grade 90 to 97% of the time, between 2001/02 and 2021/22.
Since 2000/01, Indigenous CYIC has a higher proportion of students at the age-appropriate grade; 92% in the 2021/22 school year vs. 88% for their non-Indigenous counterpart. This 4 percentage point performance gap is the average gap since 2000/01.
Overall, female CYIC students are slightly more likely to be attending school in their age-appropriate grade than male CYIC students (under 2 percentage point difference).
5.26 CYIC Who Finish School with a High School Credential
There is strong evidence that completing high school is conducive to general well-being throughout life. Furthermore, it is a good barometer of current general well-being for that particular cohort. MCFD works to maximize the educational attainment of CYIC.
BC offers several options for students to show that they completed their K to 12 education. This performance measure combines two certificates (Certificate of Graduation – Dogwood Diploma and Adult Graduation Diploma Program) and one alternative credential (School Completion certificate).
For 2020/21, 29.2% of CYIC turned 19 with a Dogwood Diploma, 17.2% with a Completion Certificate, and 16.5% with an Adult Graduation Diploma .
Over the past 18 years between fiscal year 2000/01 and 2019/20 steadily more CYIC turned 19 with a high school credential. In 2000/01 28% of CYIC turned 19 with a high school credential whereas the proportion in 2020/21 was 62.9%.
This trend in indicator is largely due to the introduction of the Completion Certificate and the continued growth in Adult Certificates. The Ministry of Education introduced Completion Certificates for students who successfully completed their education goals outlined in their Individualized Education Plan. The first CYIC turned 19 with a completion certificate in 2006/07 (1.5%). In 2020/21, 17.2% of CYIC turned 19 with a Completion Certificate. In comparison, 1.3% of CYIC turned 19 with an Adult Certificate in 2006/07, 16.5% in 2020/21.
The proportion of CYIC turning 19 with a Dogwood Diploma increased from 22% in 2000/01 to 29.1% in 2020/21. Female CYIC turn 19 with a Dogwood Diploma at higher proportions than male CYIC regardless of Indigenous identity. All groupings of male/female and Indigenous/non-Indigenous CYIC turned 19 with a Dogwood Diploma at a higher proportion in 2020/21 than 2000/01. The proportion of male Non-Indigenous CYIC showed the largest increase since 2000/01 (14.4% to 31.1%).
5.31 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) for Reading, Writing and Numeracy, Grade 4 and Grade 7
Gauging the learning of CYIC provides MCFD with insight into their educational progress as well as some of their broader needs. FSA scores (even as early as Grade 4) have a high predictive power of high school completion. This is the proportion of CYIC from September to February of their grade 4 year and their grade 7 year who are On Track or Extending for reading, writing and numeracy.
The Ministry of Education implemented new FSA tests as of the 2017/18 school year.
Why did the FSA change?
BC’s assessments are regularly reviewed and updated to respond to changes in curriculum. The FSA now reflects BC’s new curriculum and current classroom practices, such as providing students with opportunities for collaboration and reflection. The assessment also provides students with a choice in reading themes, and more interactive questions in the online component of the assessment. Students now write the FSA in the fall instead of the winter. This important change means teachers receive student results earlier, providing information on what students know, can do, and understand at the beginning of the school year. This will help teachers and schools make decisions to support student learning. For more information please go to: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/k-12/administration/program-management/assessment/foundation-skills-assessment
The FSA describes student's abilities as Emerging, On track, or Extending.
Emerging: The student demonstrates an early understanding of the concepts and competencies relevant to the expected learning.
Students at this level:
understand what they have read in a basic way
sometimes predict what happens next
put some ideas together in the text to make connections
choose basic language to convey meaning
sometimes show their own voice in their writing
On Track The student demonstrates a partial to complete understanding of the concepts and competencies relevant to the expected learning.
Students at this level:
use past experiences to understand what they have read
predict what might happen next in the text
use clues in the text to help them understand what the author has not directly said
synthesize information in basic ways
make connections between ideas in the text
choose appropriate language to convey meaning
show their own voice in their writing
Extending The student demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the concepts and competencies relevant to the expected learning.
Students at this level
use multiple past experiences to understand what they have read
correctly predict what might happen next in the text
use multiple clues in the text to help them understand what author has not directly said
synthesize information in multiple ways and make connections between big ideas in the text
provide many details in their writing
choose appropriate language to convey meaning
show authentic voice and personality in their writing
The following set of six tables presents the count and percentage of CYIC meeting or exceeding expectations in the areas of reading, writing, and numeracy in grades 4 and 7. The results below include CYIC in either grade that did not write the FSA. In 2020/21, 51% of Grade 4 CYIC and 52% of Grade 7 CYIC did not write the FSA. CYIC with an identified education special need did not write the Grade 4 FSA 64% of the time, 59% for Grade 7 CYIC with an educational special need.
Indigenous and non-Indigenous CYIC are On Track or Extending in all FSA within 10 percentage points of each other. Over the two years of results, female CYIC meet expectations at higher proportions than male CYIC on all FSA tests. The exception was grade 7 Numeracy and Reading where male CYIC has slightly higher proportion of On Track or Extending compared to female CYIC.
5.41 Age-Appropriate Grade for Youth on Youth Agreements (YAGs)
Not only is education a determinant of healthy child development, long-term well-being and social inclusion, it is also a good barometer of a youth’s current well-being. Youth may repeat a grade or perhaps had delayed starting school for many reasons. However, YAGs are more likely to fall behind in school because of their experiences both before and after they left their parental home. Combined with grade progression and high school completion this indicator provides insight into the educational progression of YAGs.
YAGs aged 17 years old in 2005/06 were in their age-appropriate grade 34% compared to 77% in 2021/22. YAGs aged 16 years old in 2005 were in their age-appropriate grade 44% compared to 91% in 2021/22.
YAGs are in their age-appropriate grade if they are, at most, 5 years older than their grade (16 years old in grade 11 and 17 years old in grade 12). This measure includes YAGs aged 18 years old as of September 30, 2021. These 18 year old YAGs make up 44% of the “Students on September 30, 2021 on a Youth Agreement” who are in school but cannot be in their age-appropriate grade due to their age.
5.46 Grade Progression of Youth Under a Youth Agreement
Although some youth are not in an age-appropriate grade they are progressing in their learning and move up to the next grade level the following September. Grade progression is an indicator of learning and educational progress.
In 2021/2022, the YAGs progression rate remained around the historical average.
5.51 Youth on a Youth Agreement Who Finish School with a High School Credential
There is strong evidence that completing high school is conducive to general well-being throughout life. Furthermore, it is a good barometer of current general well-being for that particular cohort. MCFD works to maximize the educational attainment of youth on YA.
Provincially, 63% of youth on a Youth Agreement that turned 19 also had a BC high school credential.
During 2020/21, 66% of non-Indigenous female and 71% of non-indigenous male youth under a Youth Agreement (YAGs) turned 19 with a credential, compared to 61% for Indigenous male and 55% for Indigenous female YAGs.